Women's and Gender Studies is an interdisciplinary and dynamic discipline that is a major presence at universities throughout the country and increasingly, the world.
However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive.
In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities.
In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ". Hurst states that some people think sex will, " For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations.
Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them.
They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them. Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences for breaking these cultural norms.
Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices. He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex".
Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating her belief in radical feminism. She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding and Joan Scottbegan to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within which humans think about and organize their social activity".
Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts".
However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline". Beckwith describes two ways in which the political scientist may employ 'gender' when conducting empirical research: It may also demonstrate how gender differences, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors.
Gender as a process has two central manifestations in political science research, firstly in determining "the differential effects of structures and policies upon men and women," and secondly, the ways in which masculine and feminine political actors "actively work to produce favorable gendered outcomes".
Gendering is a socially constructed process based on culture, though often cultural expectations around women and men have a direct relationship to their biology. Because of this, Newman argues, many privilege sex as being a cause of oppression and ignore other issues like race, ability, poverty, etc.
Current gender studies classes seek to move away from that and examine the intersectionality of these factors in determining people's lives.
She also points out that other non-Western cultures do not necessarily have the same views of gender and gender roles. Newman believes this is problematic because there is no unified definition as to what equality means or looks like, and that this can be significantly important in areas like public policy.
Sociologists generally regard gender as a social construct, and various researchers, including many feministsconsider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not about social or cultural construction.
For instance, sexologist John Money suggests the distinction between biological sex and gender as a role. Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, maintains "'biology' is not seen as something which might change.
However, there are scholars who argue that sex is also socially constructed. For example, gender theorist Judith Butler states that "perhaps this construct called 'sex' is as culturally constructed as gender; indeed, perhaps it was always already gender, with the consequence that the distinction between sex and gender turns out to be no distinction at all.
It would make no sense, then, to define gender as the cultural interpretation of sex, if sex is itself a gender-centered category. Gender should not be conceived merely as the cultural inscription of meaning based on a given sex a juridical conception ; gender must also designate the very apparatus of production whereby the sexes themselves are established.
She argues that colonial powers used a gender system as a tool for domination and fundamentally changing social relations among the indigenous.
She argues that male and female genitals were considered inherently the same in Western society until the 18th century. At that time, female genitals were regarded as incomplete male genitals, and the difference between the two was conceived as a matter of degree.
In other words, there was a gradation of physical forms, or a spectrum. Therefore, the current perspective toward sex, which is to consider women and men and their typical genitalia as the only possible natural options, came into existence through historical, not biological roots.
She starts her argument with an example of the birth of an intersexual individual and maintains "our conceptions of the nature of gender difference shape, even as they reflect, the ways we structure our social system and polity; they also shape and reflect our understanding of our physical bodies.Gender Roles in Animated Cartoons: Has the more equal representation of men and women in commercials.
The present study looks at gender representation in children's cartoons in the s and whether the picture has changed since the s.
Because studies by Streicher (), Sternglanz & Serbin (), Levinson (). A Queer Reading of the X-Men,” International Journal of Comic Art Conversation,” Cinema Journal 50, no.
3 (): IN FOCUS: Gender Identity and the Superhero Representation and Diversity in Comics Studies by EllEn KirKpatricK and SuzannE Scott. accordingly a discussion of gender in superhero films might initially seem to be a.
Discuss the construction and representation of gender in X-men As well as the films content, the films title can also be discussed, especially when discussing gender representation. X-Men implies mystery and secrecy, but the Men in the title is expected to cover the female members of the ca.
MS 1: Media Representations and Receptions ‘The Media Teacher’s Book’ by Julian McDougall has a good chapter on men’s magazines Media, Gender and Identity by David Gauntlett has a very relevant chapter on gender in X-Men, The Matrix – men dealing with.
psychiatric and gender identity related factors and adolescent development in order to initiate a scientific discussion on the meaning of these observations.