A Journal of the American Psychiatric Association. Van Wormer, Fred H. Groups, Communities, and Organizations.
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May Medical Cocaine hydrochloride Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose.
The major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's potential for cardiovascular toxicity, glaucomaand pupil dilation. Some ENT specialists occasionally use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization.
Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects. The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the amount taken and the route of administration. When inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate baking soda and water.
The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea.
Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance such as lime can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach.
The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver.
Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion.
Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.
The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness.
The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulationincreased heart rateand mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.
Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in HawaiiChicagoGeorgiaand several locations on the East Coast of the United Statesand the product was removed from the shelves.
Cocaine's desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted through the nose by about five minutes. This occurs because cocaine's absorption is slowed by its constricting effect on the blood vessels of the nose. Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others.
In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Nosebleeds after cocaine insufflation are due to irritation and damage of mucus membranes by foreign particles and adulterants and not the cocaine itself;[ citation needed ] as a vasoconstrictor, cocaine acts to reduce bleeding.
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