Earthquakes due to other causes. Earthquakes due to superficial movements: Earthquakes caused due to volcanic eruption: Some of the volcanoes may also produce earthquakes such earthquakes are generally feeble or severe.
This can be a particular problem with regard to the installation of retrofit external wall insulation EWI. Analysing low rise buildings construction essay damp[ edit ] Moderate rising damp on an internal wall. The examples and perspective in this may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. August Learn how and when to remove this template message Rising damp is the common term for the slow upward movement of water in the lower sections of walls and other ground-supported structures by capillary action.
Although rising damp of up to 5 metres in height has been observed  the height of rise is typically much lower and is rarely above 1. Rising damp has been a widely observed phenomenon for at least two hundred years. In simple terms rising damp occurs when ground water travels upwards through porous building materials such as brick, sandstone, or mortar, much in the same way that oil travels upwards through the wick of a lamp.
The effect can easily be seen by simply placing a piece of porous brick, stone, or mortar in a shallow tray of water and observing how the water is absorbed into the porous material and is transported above the water line.
Rising damp can be identified by a characteristic "tide mark" on the lower section of affected walls. This tide mark is caused by soluble salts particularly nitrates and chlorides contained in the groundwater. Due to the effects of evaporation these salts accumulate at the "peak" of the rising damp.
The results of the first two defects are visible enough in the house as it now exists, in the damp and green stains which are everywhere to be seen from the level of the ground to some two or three feet up the walls — Helps To Health, Sir Henry Burdettpage Rising damp is widely referred to in Victorian literature and the Public Health Act of introduced the requirement for a damp-proof course in walls to prevent rising damp.
Even if the rising damp be arrested by what is technically called an impervious damp-proof course, it will be frequently found that this is built in the wall too near the ground line, so that the heavy rain besplatters the ground and splashes above it.
As time rolls on the surface of the ground also becomes elevated, and this damp course is soon lost to sight. Attempts have been made to remedy this evil of porous bricks by the substitution of the hard blue bricks of Staffordshire; and then it may often be noticed that the wet has only struck, sailor-like, across the mortar-joints and chequered the inside walls like a tartan plaid.
It should be borne in mind that damp walls absorb much more heat than dry ones and that they are frequent agents in causing rheumatism, kidney disease and colds. Rising damp from the ground may be prevented by most simple means. Six inches of good Portland cement concrete should cover the whole site of the dwelling, and concrete never less than nine inches thick should underlie all walls.
A damp course should disconnect the whole of the foundations from the superstructure. This preventative may consist of a double layer of thick slates bedded in cement, or of patent perforated stone-ware blocks or of three-quarters of an inch of best asphalt. Vitrified stone-ware damp-course Having thus taken care that the air and moisture shall have no chance of rising into the house from the ground beneath the floor, we must now turn our attention to the walls, which is equally necessary to protect from rising damp.
If you plant a brick or stone wall on ground which is capable of retaining moisture, it will inevitably happen that unless you take means to stop its progress, the moisture will climb up the walls in obedience to the law of capillary attraction. The way to prevent this is to insert above the ground level but below the floor level, either a course of vitrified stoneware made on purpose, or two layers of slates laid in cement, or some equally effective impervious material, the intervention of which between two courses of brickwork bars will prevent the further upward progress of the damp see figure 1.
As to the damp-proof course, however, it is possible by knowing what to look for, and where to look, to find out for a certainty whether there is or is not such a thing.
Examine carefully the joints of brickwork between the ground and the level of the lower floor. A vitrified stoneware damp-course will be conspicuous from its perforations, and the difference in colour between it and the bricks.
Asphalte or slates or cement alone will all appear, the two latter like mortar joints about three or four times the usual thickness. A favourite material with speculating buiders is tarred or asphalted felt, the presence of which can generally be detected by portions of it projecting from the wall.
Its efficacy is, for all practical purposes, useless, and on no account should a Local Authority sanction its use. The damp course showen in fig. It is composed of one course only of ordinary roofing slates laid in mortar, with a space of at least an inch between each slate and the next one.
In other words, I used the phrase provocatively it usually worked. I then went on to state that whilst I accept rising damp as a term often used by the public and professionals alike might exist it is indeed extremely rare. I have at other times referred to the myth of rising dampness and explained what I understand without actually stating myself that it is a complete myth.
Manager Mike Parrett said "The point of the reward is to convince our tenants that rising damp is a myth.
Water intrusion into the indoor environment can be attributed from causes other than rising damp. Moisture penetration has been an ongoing problem for residences as evaporation occurs at the edge of the damp area, resulting in "tide marks" due to salt deposition.
However, even after the water intrusion has been treated, these salt accumulations still persist. The height of rise depends on the wall thickness, the sorptivity of the wall structure and the rate of evaporation.
Further work has confirmed experimentally the importance of mortar properties in determining the height to which damp will rise in walls.Goldsmiths, University of London is in South East London.
We offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as teacher training (PGCE), Study Abroad and short courses. Designing and constructing new buildings in big cities is the frequent topic of arguments nowadays. Some people believe that the governments or the relevant bureau should keep an eye on the design and construction of those new buildings.
Essay # 1. Introduction to Earthquake: We know that various forces of nature are responsible for changes in the crust of the earth. Earthquake is a movement of tremor of the earth’s crust. ATC Case Studies: Low-Rise Buildings 43 As far as the authors know, this is the first use of energy dissipating viscous dampers to mitigate torsional irregularity by coupling two similar multi-story structures together.
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