Plan your trip In mass culture the police are usually presented as a force opposing crime and ensuring security and peace in the streets.
They examine the subject from the point of view of philosophy, which is essential for a theory of terminology seeking to establish the relationship between concepts and terms.
The following texts have been translated by J. In an ontological frame of mind, one can, for example, try to describe it as the essence of a certain logical-linguistic operation which is necessary for the restricted availability of linguistic signs. More modestly, one may endeavour to describe it as the meaning of a set of words in a natural language considered to be equivalent: Other modes of expressions would only cover a part of this ambitious undertaking.
It is motivated by the intention of limiting the notion and prohibiting any other usage. This objective can vary considerably according to the domain of knowledge, e.
For example, the objective may be to reveal, by means of rational language logosthe being, the essence, the quiddity of an object of thought, namely of a state rather than a beingexternal to the knowing subject.
Today we rather refer to the method used by the Stoics which, from the 17th century onwards, was revived by modern philosophy. All the intermediate positions between these two poles are possible and many have been attempted.
This arbitrariness can go to extremes as certain formalist philosophies have shown; their limitations, indeed their communicative absurdity, can easily be demonstrated, as Lewis Carroll has done in his famous chapter of Through the Looking Glass.
Compare what Robinson We remember his aggressive statement: This exchange can be seen as defying the all-powerful usage and collective arbitrariness: But we must not forget the rest of the chapter.
Indeed, his own name, as he explains, is indicative of his form, hump — humpback, dump — dumpy, which can describe a short and fat person. Humpty-Dumpty is an extremist full of contradictions.
Definition, logic and language Many philosophers have asked these questions long before Carroll. Thus he presents a terminological methodology applicable to the formalisable reasoning represented by mathematics, which carefully avoids the problem of the relationship between the semantics of natural language and the construction of meaningful tools required for thinking.
This method of an alphabetical encyclopedia was considered to be complementary and apparently similar to both the mono- and multilingual language dictionaries compiled in the Western World during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Contrary to appearances, this intrusion has been felt since Roman times. Beside this attempt by a historian of philosophy and logic, one can imagine other studies from the viewpoint of the epistemology of science, from that of the theory of terminology, from that of linguistic semantics, indeed, today, from the viewpoint of variously automated cognitive science.
They also abstain from judging the one with reference to the needs of the other. By contrast, Gerolamo Sacchieri, one of the successors of the logic of the Stoics, follows the tradition of Port Royal. In the meantime, in the 19th century, several logicians and epistemologists, especially John Stuart Mill and Augustin Cournot, have dealt with the whole of this problem, the latter occupying himself with practical considerations no longer relevant only to their structure, but to the transfer of knowledge, which is very useful for lexicography.
Nor is it normally applied to the spontaneous formulations meant for the acquisition of lexical competence, in learning, as, for instance, in conversations between adults and children.
Some are not very troublesome. The ambiguity between meaning and being, which occurs both in the metalanguages of semantics and lexicography, has been the subject of detailed study, especially by J.
Other ambiguities are more serious. Certainly not, any less than it can do without the implicit and explicit theories of terminology.
In the past, many compilers of encyclopedias have tried it and produced typologies which are incomprehensible today, and in any case unusable, even though some of them continue to be of interest.
A noteworthy case is that of Isidore of Seville, the most distinguished encyclopedist of the Middle Ages. Nam tum est certum de nomine, sed quaeritur, quae res ei subjicienda sit tum res est manifesta: Quintilianus, De institutione oratoria, 1.
When the name is known with certainty, look to what thing it applies; if, however, the thing is manifest, look for the word that suits it. The divergencies arising from the comprehensio are useful for intellectual disputations, but not for the arguments of the lawyer.
Perhaps lexicography — and logic — needed a Quintilian for limiting the legitimate claims of the theory. Beside their traditional applications in rhetoric, lexicography and law, their interpretations in theoretical traditions such as philosophy, logic, and now also in philosophy of natural language, pragmatics and cognitive science, while still remaining quite distinct, reveal many intersecting aspects.Welcome to e-content platform of John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Here you can find all of our electronic books and journals, for purchase and download or subscriber access. This collection of essays on definitions, from Plato and Aristotle to modern times, assembles interesting, sometimes less widely known and controversial texts.
They examine the subject from the point of view of philosophy which is essential for a theory of terminology seeking to establish the relationship between concepts and terms. These essays deal mainly with theoretical issues but they. teen definition types, gives their Greek and Latin names, illustrates each with an example and succinctly explains what the characteristic defining technique of the definition type is.
Essays on definition. [Juan C Sager;] -- "This collection of essays on definitions, from Plato and Aristotle to modern times, assembles interesting, sometimes less widely known and controversial texts. This is a collection of essays on definitions from Plato and Aristotle to the contemporary.
They examine the subject from philosophy which is essential for a theory of terminology seeking to establish the relationship between concepts and terms.
Essay definition, a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative.
Essay definition: An essay is a short piece of writing on one particular subject written by a studentMeaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.