Computers have done a lot to improve our lives, but they also have negative impacts.
Prussian artillery at the Battle of Langensalza The development of modern artillery occurred in the mid to late 19th century as a result of the convergence of various improvements in the underlying technology. Advances in metallurgy allowed for the construction of breech-loading rifled guns that could fire at a much greater muzzle velocity.
After the British artillery was shown up in the Crimean War as having barely changed since the Napoleonic Wars the industrialist William Armstrong was awarded a contract by the government to design a new piece of artillery.
Production started in at the Elswick Ordnance Company and the Royal Arsenal at Woolwichand the outcome was the revolutionary Armstrong Gunwhich marked the birth of modern artillery.
Armstrong gun deployed by Japan during the Boshin war — First, the piece was rifledwhich allowed for a much more accurate and powerful action. Although rifling had been tried on small arms since the 15th century, the necessary machinery to accurately rifle artillery was not available until the midth century.
Martin von Wahrendorffand Joseph Whitworth independently produced rifled cannon in the s, but it was Armstrong's gun that was first to see widespread use during the Crimean War. This spin, together with the elimination of windage as a result of the tight fit, enabled the gun to achieve Impact fo computer to man range and accuracy than existing smooth-bore muzzle-loaders with a smaller powder charge.
His gun was also a breech-loader. Although attempts at breech-loading mechanisms had been made since medieval times, the essential engineering problem was that the mechanism couldn't withstand the explosive charge.
It was only with the advances in metallurgy and precision engineering capabilities during the Industrial Revolution that Armstrong was able to construct a viable solution.
The gun combined all the properties that make up an effective artillery piece. The gun was mounted on a carriage in such a way as to return the gun to firing position after the recoil. What made the gun really revolutionary lay in the technique of the construction of the gun barrel that allowed it to withstand much more powerful explosive forces.
The " built-up " method involved assembling the barrel with wrought-iron later mild steel was used tubes of successively smaller diameter. When it cooled the gun would contract although not back to its original size, which allowed an even pressure along the walls of the gun which was directed inward against the outward forces that the gun's firing exerted on the barrel.
Armstrong's system was adopted ininitially for "special service in the field" and initially he produced only smaller artillery pieces, 6-pounder 2. The first cannon to contain all 'modern' features is generally considered to be the French 75 of Since it did not need to be re-aimed after each shot, the crew could fire as soon as the barrel returned to its resting position.
In typical use, the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosiveup to about 5 miles 8, m away. Its firing rate could even reach close to 30 rounds per minute, albeit only for a very short time and with a highly experienced crew.
These were rates that contemporary bolt action rifles could not match.
The gun used cased ammunition, was breech-loading, and had modern sights, a self-contained firing mechanism and hydro-pneumatic recoil dampening.
Indirect fire Indirect fire, the firing of a projectile without relying on direct line of sight between the gun and the target, possibly dates back to the 16th century. Despite conservative opposition within the German armyindirect fire was adopted as doctrine by the s.
In the early s, Goertz in Germany developed an optical sight for azimuth laying. The British halfheartedly experimented with indirect fire techniques since the s, but with the onset of the Boer Warthey were the first to apply the theory in practice inalthough they had to improvise without a lining-plane sight.
Indirect fire was the defining characteristic of 20th-century artillery and led to undreamt of changes in the amount of artillery, its tactics, organisation, and techniques, most of which occurred during World War I.
An implication of indirect fire and improving guns was increasing range between gun and target, this increased the time of flight and the vertex of the trajectory.
The result was decreasing accuracy the increasing distance between the target and the mean point of impact of the shells aimed at it caused by the increasing effects of non-standard conditions.
Indirect firing data was based on standard conditions including a specific muzzle velocity, zero wind, air temperature and density, and propellant temperature.
In practice, this standard combination of conditions almost never existed, they varied throughout the day and day to day, and the greater the time of flight, the greater the inaccuracy.
An added complication was the need for survey to accurately fix the coordinates of the gun position and provide accurate orientation for the guns.
Of course, targets had to be accurately located, but byair photo interpretation techniques enabled this, and ground survey techniques could sometimes be used. The German 15cm field howitzers during World War I Inthe methods of correcting firing data for the actual conditions were often convoluted, and the availability of data about actual conditions was rudimentary or non-existent, the assumption was that fire would always be ranged adjusted.
British heavy artillery worked energetically to progressively solve all these problems from late onwards, and by earlyhad effective processes in place for both field and heavy artillery.
These processes enabled 'map-shooting', later called 'predicted fire'; it meant that effective fire could be delivered against an accurately located target without ranging.
Nevertheless, the mean point of impact was still some tens of yards from the target-centre aiming point.
It was not precision fire, but it was good enough for concentrations and barrages. These processes remain in use into the 21st Century with refinements to calculations enabled by computers and improved data capture about non-standard conditions.
The British major-general Henry Hugh Tudor pioneered armour and artillery cooperation at the breakthrough Battle of Cambrai.It is hard to appreciate the technical challenges involved in putting a man on the moon, but s computer technology played a fundamental role.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Regarding the affects computers have had on society, there is evidence of positive effects such as instant availability of information and access to business services, and negative effects such as increased criminal activity and information dependence.
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