Sara McLanahan Summer Children of single-parent families suffer measurable harm. But the problems of the family are far more complex than the popular debate often suggests. PinIt Instapaper Pocket Email Print Inwhen Dan Quayle condemned the television character Murphy Brown for giving birth out of wedlock, he reopened an old debate that quickly became highly polarized. Some people claimed that growing up in a fatherless home was the major cause of child poverty, delinquency, and school failure, while others denied that single motherhood had any harmful effects.
The paper argues that managerial incentives, disciplining and corporate finance are not the fundamental distinguishing features of different financial systems.
Instead, differences in ownership and control emerge as important influences on the formulation, implementation and adaptation of corporate strategy.
Ownership and control structures are interrelated with competition in product markets: Innovation, firm size and market structure: Shumpeterian hypotheses and some new themes George Symeonidis This paper surveys the empirical literature on the links between innovation, market structure and firms size.
The review shows that there is little evidence in support of the Schumpeterian hypothesis that market power and large firms stimulate innovations. Recent empirical work suggests that RGD intensity and market structure are jointly determined by technology, the characteristics of demand, the institutional framework, strategic interaction and chance.
Mark-up pricing, market structure and the business cycle Joaquim Oliveira Martins, Stefano Scarpetta and Dirk Pilat This paper presents estimates of mark-ups of prices over marginal costs for 36 manufacturing industries and 7 service sectors in 14 OECD countries. It applies a recently developed methodology, and finds that positive mark-ups are common in both manufacturing and services.
The level of the estimated mark-ups can partly be related to competitive conditions by type of market structure.
The paper also finds evidence of counter-cyclical behaviour of mark-ups, providing a possible explanation for the pro-cyclicality of employment and real wages. Competition, productivity and efficiency Dirk Pilat This paper discusses the empirical evidence on cross-country productivity gaps and analyses the link between productivity and competition.
It finds that inefficiency and low productivity levels are widespread in both manufacturing and services, and throughout the OECD area. The variation in productivity levels and growth rates appears related to the degree of competition facing industries.
International competition is an important element in achieving high productivity levels, but domestic factors also play a role. High entry rates appear conducive to productivity, but high concentration is not.
In service sectors, government-imposed regulations are often an important restriction on competition and productivity growth. First, reasons for spending differences over time and across countries in transfer programmes are examined. A general finding is that differences in eligibility and entitlement conditions are usually more important than underlying population and risk characteristics.
Moreover, eligibility conditions, reflecting policy goals and programme administration, often appear to be more important than benefit levels in explaining spending patterns. The second part of the paper reflects on these results, giving a brief overview of policy reforms that might allow programme objectives to be reached more efficiently.
Alternative approaches to reducing the well-known "poverty trap" are identified and assessed, including Credit and Negative Income Tax programmes, earnings supplementation, and two marginal employment subsidy plans.
It is concluded that a judicious combination of a moderate income guarantee plus programmes to stimulate the supply of and the demand for lower skilled labour could yield gains in a number of dimensions relative to existing income protection arrangements.
A stylised "blueprint" which illustrates such an approach is presented. Assessing the role of labour market policies and institutional settings on unemployment: The results suggest that these factors do matter for the level of structural unemployment and for the speed of labour market adjustment after an exogenous shock.
In particular, generous unemployment benefit systems and stringent employment protection legislation are associated with high unemployment and a lower speed of adjustment.
Greater coordination among social partners in the wage bargaining process as well as both highly centralised and fully decentralised bargaining systems are beneficial to labour market performance.In many countries, immigration has led to increasingly diverse student populations, who are often concentrated in city centers or in the suburbs immediately surrounding.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. International relations (IR) is a branch of political science, that deals with foreign affairs and global issues among the states within the international system, including the roles of states, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support civil rights, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion.
OECD Journal: Economic Studies publishes articles in the area of economic policy analysis, applied economics, and statistical analysis, generally with an international or cross-country dimension.
El Salvador Table of Contents The Oligarchy and the Liberal State. Coffee would become the last of the great monoculture export commodities in El Salvador.