Contributors Sodium carbonate also known as washing soda or soda ashNa2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid and is a fairly strong, non-volatile base.
Sodium bicarbonatealso called sodium hydrogen carbonate, or bicarbonate of soda, NaHCO3, is a source of carbon dioxide and so is used as an ingredient in baking powdersin effervescent salts and beverages, and as the main constituent of dry-chemical fire extinguishers.
Its slight alkalinity makes it useful in treating gastric or urinary hyperacidity and acidosis. Preparation of sodium carbonate is also employed in certain industrial processes, as in tanning and the preparation of wool. Sodium carbonateor soda ash, Na2CO3, is widely distributed in nature, occurring as constituents of mineral waters and as the solid minerals natron, tronaand thermonatrite.
Large quantities of this alkaline salt are used in making glassdetergents, and cleansers.
Sodium carbonate is treated with carbon dioxide to produce sodium bicarbonate. It is obtained either from deposits of the sodium sulfate minerals mirabilite and thenardite or synthetically by the treatment of sodium chloride with sulfuric acid.
Sodium thiosulfate sodium hyposulfiteNa2S2O3, is used by photographers to fix developed negatives and prints; it acts by dissolving the part of the silver salts coated onto film which remain unchanged by exposure to light.
Sodium hydroxide NaOH is a corrosive white crystalline solid that readily absorbs moisture until it dissolves. Commonly called caustic soda, or lyesodium hydroxide is the most widely used industrial alkali. It is highly corrosive to animal and vegetable tissue.
The alkaline solutions it forms when dissolved in water neutralize acids in various commercial processes: Solutions of NaOH are used in the treatment of cellulose and in the manufacture of many chemicals.
Ruben Castelnuovo Sodium nitrateor soda nitre, NaNO3, is commonly called Chile saltpetreafter its mineral deposits in northern Chile, the principal source. Sodium nitrate is used as a nitrogenous fertilizer and as a component of dynamite.
Chemical properties Generally, elemental sodium is more reactive than lithiumand it reacts with water to form a strong basesodium hydroxide NaOH. Its chemistry is well explored. Reaction with air, water, and hydrogen Sodium is ordinarily quite reactive with air, and the reactivity is a function of the relative humidityor water-vapour content of the air.
The corrosion of solid sodium by oxygen also is accelerated by the presence of small amounts of impurities in the sodium. In ordinary air, sodium metal reacts to form a sodium hydroxide film, which can rapidly absorb carbon dioxide from the air, forming sodium bicarbonate.
Sodium does not react with nitrogenso sodium is usually kept immersed in a nitrogen atmosphere or in inert liquids such as kerosene or naphtha.
In a comparatively dry atmosphere, sodium burns quietly, giving off a dense white caustic smoke, which can cause choking and coughing.
Special dry-powder fire extinguishers are required, since sodium reacts with carbon dioxide, a common propellant in regular fire extinguishers. Sodium monoxide Na2O is ordinarily formed upon oxidation of sodium in dry air.
Another route to the superoxide is oxidation of sodium peroxide, Na2O2, treated to have a large surface area. Sodium that is heavily contaminated with the monoxide may be readily purified by filtrationsince the solubility of the oxide in molten sodium is low.
This low solubility is utilized to a considerable extent in continuous purification processes of the sodium in large liquid-metal reactor systems. A second technique for removing the oxide, called cold trapping, involves running the molten sodium through a cooled packed bed of material, upon which the oxide can precipitate.
Filtration and cold trapping also are effective in removal of gross quantities of carbonate, hydroxide, and hydride.Uses and production of sodium carbonate using the Solvay Process, tutorial suitable for chemistry students. ml of sodium carbonate solution contain gram of sodium carbonate.
What is the normality of the solution? What is the volume of 3 molar sulphuric acid in a preparation of 1 litre of 1 molar solution?
Apr 21, · The invention relates to a process for the preparation of basic copper carbonate in which the hydrochloric acid and sodium containing waste solution from copper etching processes is stirred at an elevated temperature into an aqueous alkali carbonate solution and the basic copper carbonate is subsequently separated from the solution.
Preparation of Sodium Ethyl Sulfate. Method 1 To prepare the sodium salt of ethyl hydrogen sulfate, a mixture of alcohol and H2SO4 is boiled under reflux, cooled, and an excess of calcium carbonate is. Mar 27, · Sodium percarbonate is prepared by reacting a sodium carbonate solution or suspension containing sodium hexametaphosphate or sodium polyacrylate with an Mg + + containing hydrogen peroxide solution in the presence of sodium chloride.
The reaction product has good abrasion resistance but contains too many fines. The sodium carbonate formed is hydrated suitably to form the washing soda.
But this process is not suitable for preparation of potassium carbonate because the potassium bicarbonate forming will be more soluble and cannot be used.