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Psychoanalyse first started to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud, who formulated his own theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the s. Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms.
Freud realised that there were mental processes that were not conscious, whilst he was employed as a neurological consultant at the Children's Hospital, where he noticed that many aphasic children had no apparent organic cause for their symptoms.
He then wrote a monograph about this subject.
Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms. Freud's first theory to explain hysterical symptoms was presented in Studies on Hysteriaco-authored with his mentor the distinguished physician Josef Breuerwhich was generally seen as the birth of psychoanalysis.
The work was based on Breuer's treatment of Bertha Pappenheimreferred to in case studies by the pseudonym " Anna O. Breuer wrote that many factors that could result in such symptoms, including various types of emotional trauma, and he also credited work by others such as Pierre Janet ; while Freud contended that at the root of hysterical symptoms were repressed memories of distressing occurrences, almost always having direct or indirect sexual associations.
It remained unpublished in his lifetime. This became the received historical account until challenged by several Freud scholars in the latter part of the 20th century who argued that he had imposed his preconceived notions on his patients. Freud formulated his second psychological theory— which hypothesises that the unconscious has or is a "primary process" consisting of symbolic and condensed thoughts, and a "secondary process" of logical, conscious thoughts.
This theory was published in his book, The Interpretation of Dreams. In this theory, which was mostly later supplanted by the Structural Theory, unacceptable sexual wishes were repressed into the "System Unconscious", unconscious due to society's condemnation of premarital sexual activity, and this repression created anxiety.
This "topographic theory" is still popular in much of Europe, although it has fallen out of favour in much of North America. Freud and Jung in the center InFreud published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality  in which he laid out his discovery of so-called psychosexual phases: His early formulation included the idea that because of societal restrictions, sexual wishes were repressed into an unconscious state, and that the energy of these unconscious wishes could be turned into anxiety or physical symptoms.
Therefore, the early treatment techniques, including hypnotism and abreaction, were designed to make the unconscious conscious in order to relieve the pressure and the apparently resulting symptoms. This method would later on be left aside by Freud, giving free association a bigger role.
In On Narcissism  Freud turned his attention to the subject of narcissism. Still using an energic system, Freud characterized the difference between energy directed at the self versus energy directed at others, called cathexis.
Byin "Mourning and Melancholia", he suggested that certain depressions were caused by turning guilt-ridden anger on the self. ByFreud addressed the power of identification with the leader and with other members in groups as a motivation for behavior Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego.
Also, it was the first appearance of his "structural theory" consisting three new concepts id, ego, and superego.
Hence, Freud characterised repression as both a cause and a result of anxiety. Inin Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, Freud characterised how intrapsychic conflict among drive and superego wishes and guilt caused anxietyand how that anxiety could lead to an inhibition of mental functions, such as intellect and speech.
According to Freud, the Oedipus complex, was at the centre of neurosis, and was the foundational source of all art, myth, religion, philosophy, therapy—indeed of all human culture and civilization. It was the first time that anyone in the inner circle had characterised something other than the Oedipus complex as contributing to intrapsychic development, a notion that was rejected by Freud and his followers at the time.
Also inAnna FreudSigmund's daughter, published her seminal book, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, outlining numerous ways the mind could shut upsetting things out of consciousness.
Within a year, Sigmund Freud died. Led by Heinz HartmannKris, Rappaport and Lowenstein, the group built upon understandings of the synthetic function of the ego as a mediator in psychic functioning[ jargon ].
Hartmann in particular distinguished between autonomous ego functions such as memory and intellect which could be secondarily affected by conflict and synthetic functions which were a result of compromise formation[ jargon ]. These "Ego Psychologists" of the s paved a way to focus analytic work by attending to the defenses mediated by the ego before exploring the deeper roots to the unconscious conflicts.
In addition there was burgeoning interest in child psychoanalysis. Although criticized since its inception, psychoanalysis has been used as a research tool into childhood development,  and is still used to treat certain mental disturbances.
Several researchers  followed Karen Horney 's studies of societal pressures that influence the development of women. In the first decade of the 21st century, there were approximately 35 training institutes for psychoanalysis in the United States accredited by the American Psychoanalytic Association APsaAwhich is a component organization of the International Psychoanalytical Association IPAand there are over graduated psychoanalysts practicing in the United States.
The IPA accredits psychoanalytic training centers through such "component organisations" throughout the rest of the world, including countries such as Serbia, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland,  and many others, as well as about six institutes directly in the United States.
Theories[ edit ] The predominant psychoanalytic theories can be organised into several theoretical schools. Although these theoretical schools differ, most of them emphasize the influence of unconscious elements on the conscious. There has also been considerable work done on consolidating elements of conflicting theories cf.
In the 21st century, psychoanalytic ideas are embedded in Western culture,[ vague ] especially in fields such as childcareeducationliterary criticismcultural studiesmental healthand particularly psychotherapy.
Though there is a mainstream of evolved analytic ideasthere are groups who follow the precepts of one or more of the later theoreticians.
Psychoanalytic ideas also play roles in some types of literary analysis such as Archetypal literary criticism.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Mentions of the Harry Potter Bibliography "Since , Cornelia Rémi has maintained an up-to-date and marvelously informative website of international scholarship, symposia, sources, [ ] which attests to the ever-growing, worldwide attention being given to this literature and the vast sea of literary productions emerging from that attention.".
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