Social Security Trust Fund:
Documentary History Historical context The 2nd Amendment, starting in the latter half of the 20th century, became an object of much debate. Concerned with rising violence in society and the role firearms play in that violence, gun control advocates began to read the 2nd Amendment one way.
On the other side, firearm enthusiasts saw the attacks on gun ownership as attacks on freedom, and defended their interpretation of the 2nd Amendment just as fiercely. If the authors of the 2nd Amendment could have foreseen the debate, they might have phrased the amendment differently, because much of the debate has centered around the way the amendment is phrased.
Despite the rhetoric on both sides of the issue, the answer to both questions is most likely, "Yes.
Standing armies were mistrusted, as they had been used as tools of oppression by the monarchs of Europe for centuries. In the war for independence, there had been a regular army, but much of the fighting had been done by the state militias, under the command of local officers.
Aside from the war, militias were needed because attacks were relatively common, whether by bandits, Indians, and even by troops from other states.
Today, the state militias have evolved into the National Guard in every state. These soldiers, while part-time, are professionally trained and armed by the government. No longer are regular, non-Guardsmen, expected to take up arms in defense of the state or the nation though the US Code does still recognize the unorganized militia as an entity, and state laws vary on the subject [10 USC ].
This is in great contrast to the way things were at the time of adoption of the 2nd Amendment.
Many state constitutions had a right to bear arms for the purposes of the maintenance of the militia. Many had laws that required men of age to own a gun and supplies, including powder and bullets. In the state constitutions written around the time of the Declaration of Independencethe right to bear arms was presented in different ways.
The Articles of Confederation specified that the states should maintain their militias, but did not mention a right to bear arms. Thus, any such protections would have to come from state law. The Virginia Declaration of Rightsthough it mentioned the militia, did not mention a right to bear arms — the right might be implied, since the state did not furnish weapons for militiamen.
The constitutions of North Carolina and Massachusetts did guarantee the right, to ensure proper defense of the states. The constitution of Pennsylvania guaranteed the right with no mention of the militia at the time, Pennsylvania had no organized militia. One of the arguments of the Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates was that the new nation did not arm the militias, an odd argument since neither did the U.
Today, in my opinion, the voters are much too sophisticated to elect a leader whose stated aims would be to suppress freedom or declare martial law. For the leader whose unstated aim it was to seize the nation, the task would be more than daunting — it would be next to impossible.
The size and scope of the conspiracy needed, the cooperation of patriots who would see right through such a plan — it is unfathomable, the stuff of fiction. There are some who fear the rise in executive power under the second Bush presidency is just such a usurpation, and in some ways it may be.
But similar usurpations of power by the Congress and the President, such as the Alien and Sedition Acts, the suspension of habeas corpus during the Civil War, or the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II, were all eventually overturned or struck down and then condemned by history.
My hope is that history can be our guide this time, too. The defense of our borders had not been a cause for concern for nearly a century before the subject really came up again around the time of the turn of the millennium, in Concern with border defense again became an issue after September 11,when a series of terrorist attacks, both in the form of hijacked airliners crashing into buildings and anthrax-laced mail, made people realize that we do have enemies that wish to invade our nation, though not on the scale of an army.
But while each state has its National Guard it can call up to guard the borders, the coordination needed is much more on a national scale, and special units of the regular army or border patrol are better suited for such duty than the Guard.
These interpretations tend to lean in one of two ways. The first is that the amendment was meant to ensure that individuals have the absolute right to own firearms; the second is that the amendment was meant to ensure that States could form, arm, and maintain their own militias.
Either way, it is a bar to federal action only, because the 2nd Amendment has not been incorporated by the Supreme Court to apply to the states. This means that within its own constitution, a state may be as restrictive or non-restrictive as it wishes to be in the regulation of firearms; likewise, private rules and regulations may prohibit or encourage firearms.
For example, if a housing association wishes to bar any firearm from being held within its borders, it is free to do so. The Supreme Court, in permitting the United States to apply a stamp tax to sawed-off shotguns a move, it was argued, that was intended to make such weapons de facto illegalessentially said that if a weapon does not contribute to the maintenance of a militia, and has no use in ensuring the common defense, it can be regulated United States v.
Miller, US . Though the outcome of Miller was never fully resolved the Court asked that Miller prove the relevance of the sawed-off shotgun to the maintenance of the militia, but Jack Miller died before he could, and the case died with himthe rationale used in Miller has been the basis for all gun control laws since As the GPO page notes"At what point regulation or prohibition of what classes of firearms would conflict with the Amendment, if at all, the Miller case does little more than cast a faint degree of illumination toward an answer.
The question, then, is do we have to adhere to both tenets of the amendment today? If we decide to do away with the individual ownership aspect of the Amendment, reinterpreting the amendment to allow highly restricted gun ownership, we seem to open the door to radical reinterpretation of other, more basic parts of the Constitution.
If we decide to do nothing, and allow unrestricted gun ownership, we run the risk of creating a society of the gun, a risk that seems too great to take. So the real question seems to be, can we have the a constitutional freedom to bear arms, and still allow restriction and regulation? After all, we have freedom of speech in the United States, but you are not truly free to say whatever you wish.This article concerns proposals to change the Social Security system in the United timberdesignmag.com Security is a social insurance program officially called "Old-age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance" (OASDI), in reference to its three components.
It is primarily funded through a dedicated payroll timberdesignmag.com , total benefits of $ billion were paid out versus $ billion in income, a. The United States has guns per people, or about ,, guns, which is the highest total and per capita number in the world.
22% of Americans own one or more guns (35% of men and 12% of women). The debate over gun control in the United States has waxed and waned over the years, stirred by a series of mass killings by gunmen in civilian settings.
In . The Second Amendment provides U.S. citizens the right to bear arms. Ratified in December , the amendment says: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the. A Relevant History of Public Education in the United States.
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Immigration and Migration. U.S. Border Security. Donald Trump.
Introduction. Immigration has been a touchstone of the U.S. political debate for decades, as policymakers.