Content[ edit ] The Essai is a work of Enlightenment philosophy as much as of history. It urges the active rejection of superstition and fable and their replacement by knowledge based on reason. In contrast, the Essai praised ancient China and India. He countered that these states differed among each other just as Christian states did, none of them treating subjects as slaves.
Voltaire - pseudonym of Franois-Marie Arouet French writer, satirist, the embodiment of the 18th-century Enlightenment. Voltaire is remembered as a crusader against tyranny and bigotry.
Voltaire disliked Rousseau and wrote to him in His father was a minor treasury official. Voltaire was educated by the Jesuits at the Collge Louis-le-Grand From to he studied law.
Before devoting himself entirely to writing, Voltaire worked as a secretary to the French ambassador in Holland. From the beginning, Voltaire had troubles with the authorities, but he energetically attacked the government and the Catholic church.
These activities led to numerous imprisonments and exiles. In his early twenties he spent eleven months in the Bastille for writing satiric verses about the aristocracy.
Voltaire did not support the dogmatic theology of institutional religions, his religiosity was anticlerical.
With his brother Armand, who was a fundamentalist Catholic, Voltaire did not get on as well as with his sister. Atheism Voltaire considered not as baleful as fanaticism, but nearly always fatal to virtue. The doctrines about the Trinity or the Incarnation he dismissed as nonsense.
As a humanist, Voltaire advocated religious and social tolerance, but not necessarily in a direct way. They had no doubts that the true target was Christian fanaticism. In Voltaire was arrested and exiled from Paris for five months. From to he was imprisoned in the Bastille for lampoons of the Regency.
The play brought him fame which did not lessen the number of his enemies at court. At his stay at the Bastille, Voltaire was visited by a flow of admirers. Between and he lived in exile mainly in England.
After returning to France Voltaire wrote plays, poetry, historical and scientific treatises and became royal historiographer. Voltaire stated that he had perceived fewer barriers between occupations in England than in his own country.
The book was banned, and Voltaire was forced to flee Paris.
The English edition became a bestseller outside France. In addition, with lucky speculation in the Compagnie des Indes he became so wealthy, that he lent money to dukes and princes.
She was twenty-seven, married, and the mother of three children.Voltaire an essay on the customs and spirit of nations Voltaire x27;s body of writing also includes the notable historical works The Age of Louis XIV () and Essay on the Customs and the Spirit of the Nations ()timberdesignmag.com /voltaire-essay and-spirit-of-nations · The Online Books Page An essay on universal history, the manners, and spirit of nations, from the reign of Charlemaign to the age of Lewis timberdesignmag.com?key=ha Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Other articles where An Essay on Universal History, the Manners and Spirit of Nations from the Reign of Charlemaign to the Age of Lewis XIV is discussed: Voltaire: Life with Mme du Châtelet: and manners that became the Essai sur les moeurs, and plunged into biblical exegesis.
Mme du Châtelet herself wrote an Examen, highly critical of the two timberdesignmag.com A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Facsimile PDF MB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book.
Kindle KB This is an E-book formatted for Amazon Kindle devices. EBook PDF KB This. · Voltaire () The United States Customs seized a shipment of the imported edition of the novel in and declared it obscene.
its short, polemical articles were more useful when "the readers produce the other half". In Essay on the Manner and Spirit of Nations, Voltaire presented the first modern comparative history timberdesignmag.com